Explanation of the topics (Q.2)

The first topic that I am going to explain is “Corpus-based language modeling” which belongs to The Association for Computational Linguistics and Natural Processing Language (Columbus, Ohio).

Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or “real world” text. This method represents a digestive approach to deriving a set of abstract rules by which a natural language is governed or else relates to another language. Originally done by hand, corpora are largely derived by an automated process, which is corrected.

Computational methods had once been viewed as a holy grail of linguistic research, which would ultimately manifest a ruleset for natural language processing and machine translation at a high level. Such has not been the case, and since the cognitive revolution, cognitive linguistics has been largely critical of many claimed practical uses for corpora. However, as computation capacity and speed have increased, the use of corpora to study language and term relationships en masse has gained some respectability.

The corpus approach runs counter to Noam Chomsky‘s view that real language is riddled with performance-related errors, thus requiring careful analysis of small speech samples obtained in a highly controlled laboratory setting. Corpus linguistics does away with Chomsky’s competence/performance split; adherents believe that reliable language analysis best occurs on field-collected samples, in natural contexts and with minimal experimental interference.

The second topic is “Pragmatics”  which belongs to The Association for Computational Linguistics and Natural Processing Language (Columbus, Ohio).

Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. The ability to understand another speaker’s intended meaning is called pragmatic competence. An utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic. Another perspective is that pragmatics deals with the ways we reach our goal in communication. Suppose, a person wanted to ask someone else to stop smoking. This can be achieved by using several utterances. The person could simply say, ‘Stop smoking, please!’ which is direct and with clear semantic meaning; alternatively, the person could say, ‘Whew, this room could use an air purifier’ which implies a similar meaning but is indirect and therefore requires pragmatic inference to derive the intended meaning.

Pragmatics is regarded as one of the most challenging aspects for language learners to grasp, and can only truly be learned with experience.

The last topic is “Speech Recognition”  which belongs to  The Association for Computational Linguistics and Natural Processing Language (Columbus, Ohio).

Speech recognition (also known as automatic speech recognition or computer speech recognition) converts spoken words to machine-readable input (for example, to the binary code for a string of character codes). The term voice recognition may also be used to refer to speech recognition, but more precisely refers to speaker recognition, which attempts to identify the person speaking, as opposed to what is being said.

Speech recognition applications include voice dialing (e.g., “Call home”), call routing (e.g., “I would like to make a collect call”), domotic appliance control and content-based spoken audio search (e.g., find a podcast where particular words were spoken), simple data entry (e.g., entering a credit card number), preparation of structured documents (e.g., a radiology report), speech-to-text processing (e.g., word processors or emails), and in aircraft cockpits (usually termed Direct Voice Input).


  • Wikipedia, 14 May 2008. Retrived: 19 May 2008, 17:52


  • Wikipedia, 25 April 2008. Retrived: 19 May 2008, 17:53


  • Wikipedia, 15 May 2008. Retrived: 19 May 2008, 17:54




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